So how far does knowledge extend from what we’ve learned so far?
Perception is a requirement of scientific work, as laboratory work and observations of nature require perceiving it. Essentially one makes observations, inductively generalizes from them, and through inductive transmission of knowledge from one’s premises to one’s conclusions, comes to know the truth of the generalization.
Relativism - Moral judgments are true relative to our cultures. So like American moral truths and Chinese moral truths.
Noncognitivism - Similar in the fact that it views moral truths as cultural, but is attitudinal. Also known as expressionist. Basically moral judgments are not truths, but attitudes.
Kantian Epistemology - We are to act only on principles that we can (rationally) will to be universal laws of nature obeyed by us all. *not much info exactly on what was meant in the book.
Utilitarian Epistemology - Moral actions are those that lead to the best (pleasure or freedom from pain) for the most amount of people.
I didn’t feel like going through the rather long section on religious knowledge to make notes. I did read it, but going through it again was not worth my time. It was pretty much some garbage about how someone might think they know or experience GOD.