Chapter 12 Scientific, Moral, and Religious Knowledge

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This page is part of my self study project into philosophy. What is written are my own personal notes taken as a means of formalizing what I've read and/or learned. The information may not be accurate, as I may have took away the wrong points. Also the information could be basic or partial - as learning requires taking on small parts before getting deeper. The content may be a tad scatterbrain as well. Either way, it should be an interesting read and maybe you'll learn something with me.

So how far does knowledge extend from what we've learned so far?

Scientific Knowledge

Perception is a requirement of scientific work, as laboratory work and observations of nature require perceiving it. Essentially one makes observations, inductively generalizes from them, and through inductive transmission of knowledge from one's premises to one's conclusions, comes to know the truth of the generalization.

Moral Knowledge

Relativism - Moral judgments are true relative to our cultures. So like American moral truths and Chinese moral truths.

Noncognitivism - Similar in the fact that it views moral truths as cultural, but is attitudinal. Also known as expressionist. Basically moral judgments are not truths, but attitudes.

Kantian Epistemology - We are to act only on principles that we can (rationally) will to be universal laws of nature obeyed by us all. *not much info exactly on what was meant in the book.

Utilitarian Epistemology - Moral actions are those that lead to the best (pleasure or freedom from pain) for the most amount of people.

Religious Knowledge

I didn't feel like going through the rather long section on religious knowledge to make notes. I did read it, but going through it again was not worth my time. It was pretty much some garbage about how someone might think they know or experience GOD.